HSC IN ZEBRAFISH

                               Understanding Developmental Anatomy

Objectives:

 Short introduction about the cell taking into consideration:

How did you originate?

Purpose in the overall scheme of the whole organism in which you are part of.

Fate.

I am a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) in the ZEBRAFISH.

zebra%20fish

HSC are most abundant and originated from endothelial cells and bone marrow. HSC includes some form of differentiation, and embryonic development during adulthood. It major purpose is the transplantation setting; meaning that it traces stem cells in vivo (embryo and adult) in a regenerative content.  The fate of HSC is that it starts off from evolution of embryo cells (pluripotent) transforming into adult stem cells (multipotent) and lastly to specialized cells by the Notch-Runx pathway. The advantage of multipotent cells is that it can move into a different cell of a particular tissue for specification and cell renewal.

                                                               POETRY PASSION

POETRY CAN BE SELF-STIMULATING AND ENHANCE LEARNING TECHNIQUES……………

         THIS POEM IS WHERE EACH STANZA GIVES INSIGHTS ABOUT DIFFERENT  OBJECTIVES OF HSC FOR FURTHER UNDERSTANDING OF THIS MODEL ORGANISM. HOPE YOY ENJOY………….

STANZA 1- PURPOSE IN THE OVERALL ORGANISM

STANZA 2- FATE

STANZA 3- FEATURES OF THE CELL

STANZA 4- IMPORTANT ASPECTS IN THE FIELD OF RESEARCH.

                                       HSC HISTORY IN ZEBRAFISH

HSC  shows ways of differentiation,
From pluripotent into adult stem cells followed by specialized cells defines their migration,
As its major purpose is cell regeneration,
Not forgetting, embryonic development and transplantation.

The formation of new cells (progenitor cells) is known as the regenerative strategy
HSC can replace themselves indefinitely; a unique capacity,
HSC develop thirty two hours after fertilization;
Similar to a mammalian.

Being established by the Notch- Runx pathway,
First the Golgi, Notch extracellular domain then to final cleavage in nucleus are features  HSC display,
Embryo and larvae described as developmental morphology,
Organs transformation is the anatomy.

It requires thirteen protein coding genes and one non coding for replication,
As their large sizes and short lifecycles can be utilized to decrease gene expression,
Importance in research of toxicology and environmental biology,
This is a poem about the HSC history.

INFORMATION CAN BE USEFUL
SO                                               BE                                                            THANKFUL

              STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF HSC IN THE ZEBRAFISH

JUST A LITTLE EXTRA READING ABOUT UNDERSTANDING THE PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF HSC IN THE ZEBRAFISH.

As outlined in the introduction, HSC can be used in analyzing theories of

CELL DIFFERENTIATION

TISSUE STEM CELLS

As their function is to form, migrate, maintain during development in terms of its ability to self renew and differentiate into all blood types.

THIS IS WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW.

 LETS MOVE A LITTLE FURTHER…..

                                                  Let’s look at it in this way……

Gene transcription and epigenetic modifications as a way of balancing differentiated cell population are the major processes outlined.

All vertebrates including zebrafish have primitive and definitive waves of hematopoiesis.

                                    There is an exception.

 HSCs are only produced by the definitive wave.  This takes place in the ICM. Where hematopoiesis shifts to the posterior blood island (PBI). The definitive wave starts in the aorta-gonadmesonephros (AGM). There are three  HSC migration and colonization events which begin 2 days post-fertilization: They are outlined below:

AGM progenitor cells migrate to:

 (1) the caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT)-  intermediate site of blood development

 (2) the thymus – site of lymphocyte maturation

NOT FORGETTING THE :

 (3) the developing kidney marrow- the larval and adult location for production of all hematopoietic cell types

                                       VALUABLE VOCABULARY

Valuable vocabulary is simply getting the mind prepared to understanding words that might seem to difficult to analyze……

PUTTING HSC IN THEORY
BY USAGE OF VOCABULARY…….

Differentiation- development process from simple to complex things

Transplantation- transfer of an organ to tissue

Regenerative- tissue that has grown to replace old ones

Multipotent- ability to develop into any cell type

Specification- building forms of other tissue

Renewal- replace damaged things

Morphology- structure and functions of an organism

Anatomy- study of physical and internal structure

Replicating- duplicating or reproducing something.

http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics1.aspx

http://www.scrb.harvard.edu/lab/59/research

Arai F., Hirao, A., Ohmura, M., Sato, H., Matsuoka, S., Takubo, K., Ito, K., Koh, G.Y., and Suda, T. 2004. Tie2/angiopoietin-1 signaling regulates hematopoietic stem cell quiescence in the bone marrow niche. Cell 118: 149-161. [PubMed]

  • Avecilla S.T., Hattori, K.,      Heissig, B., Tejada, R., Liao, F., Shido, K., Jin, D.K., Dias, S., Zhang,      F., Hartman, T.E., et al. 2004. Chemokine-mediated interaction of      hematopoietic progenitors with the bone marrow vascular niche is required      for thrombopoiesis. Nat. Med. 10: 64-71. [PubMed]
  • Baron M. 2001. Induction of      embryonic hematopoietic and endothelial stem/progenitor cells by      hedgehog-mediated signals. Differentiation 68: 175-185. [PubMed]
  • Bhardwaj G., Murdoch, B., Wu,      D., Baker, D.P., Williams, K.P., Chadwick, K., Ling, L.E., Karanu, F.N.,      and Bhatia, M. 2001. Sonic hedgehog induces the proliferation of primitive      human hematopoietic cells via BMP regulation. Nat. Immunol. 2:      172-180. [PubMed]
  • Bray S. 1998. Notch signalling      in Drosophila: Three ways to use a pathway. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol.      9: 591-597. [PubMed]
  1. Burns C.E., DeBlasio, T., Zhou, Y., Zhang, J., Zon, L., and Nimer, S.D. 2002. Isolation and characterization of runxa and runxb, zebrafish members of the runt family of transcriptional regulators. Exp. Hematol. 30: 1381-1389. [PubMed]

. Stem cell assays: something old, something new, something borrowed. Stem Cells 2004;22(7):11811190.

  1. Purton LE,
  2. Scadden DT

. Limiting factors in murine hematopoietic stem cell assays. Cell Stem Cell 2007;1(3):263270.

. Allogeneic marrow grafting for hematologic malignancy using HL-A matched donor-recipient sibling pairs. Blood 1971;38(3):267287.

  • . A contig map of the Mhc class I genomic region in the      zebrafish reveals ancient synteny. J Immunol 2000;164(10):52Abstract/FREE Full Text 1908: The term      “stem cell” was proposed for scientific use by the Russian      histologist Alexander Maksimov (1874–1928) at congress      of hematologic society in Berlin. It postulated existence of haematopoietic stem      cells.
  • 1960s: Joseph Altman and Gopal Das present scientific      evidence of adult neurogenesis, ongoing stem cell activity in the      brain; their reports contradict Cajal‘s “no new neurons”      dogma and are largely ignored.
  • 1963: McCulloch and Till      illustrate the presence of self-renewing cells in mouse bone marrow.
  • 1968: Bone marrow transplant between two siblings successfully      treats SCID.
  • 1978: Haematopoietic stem cells are      discovered in human cord blood.

 

 

Advertisements